Christian feminist theologians wish to maintain a strong faith and take the Bible seriously while also believing in the full equality of women and men in every aspect of life (1). And will shortly be shown, Christian evangelical feminism and theology engage a diverse range of issues and topics, which leads one to view it not as a monolithic phenomenon, but rather in the plural, feminisms.
Christian feminists address a variety of theological and biblical topics such as concepts of God, language used for God, biblical interpretation, Christology, spiritual metaphors, worship, devotional practices, feminist rituals, sexuality questions, ordination, other church leadership matters, and more. Christian feminism further acknowledges how violence, dehumanization, hateful human interaction, and abuse of women have been legitimated by religious and theological rhetoric.
Much of Christian feminism is pragmatic and concerned with human experience. It focuses on the issues of violence against women, child abuse, rape, harassment, in both developed and developing countries. Feminist theologians look into issues of justice, peace, empowerment, poverty, and income disparities. Feminists are interested in the stewardship of the environment, questions of marriage partnership, reproduction, and parenting among both heterosexual and LGBTQ persons and families.
The Rise of Evangelical Feminism
It was in the 1960s that feminist theology first emerged when women began questioning male theological language they believed made them inferior. A wave of evangelical feminists in the 1960s and 1970s also started asking questions about what Scripture teaches and how it was being interpreted. They wanted to critically examine assumptions, biblical interpretations, and church traditions. This led to feminist theologians examining translations of Scripture, the historical-cultural contexts of the passages used to keep women in a subordinate role, and the meaning of words and phrases in the original Hebrew and Greek languages.
Evangelical feminists soon began organizing. The Evangelical Women’s Caucus (EWC) grew to have many chapters in several states across the United States, held biennial conferences, and published a newsletter. The group affirmed civil rights for gay and lesbian persons. But it was in response to this that a large group of members broke away to form Christians for Biblical Equality (CBE). They dissociated themselves from what they considered an unbiblical endorsement of homosexuality. In 1990, the EWC became the Evangelical & Ecumenical Women’s Caucus (EEWC).
Christian feminism also grew in the 1970s when many women survivors and victims of violence were beginning to speak out about their abuse and often so at great risk. Women who had been raped, beaten, or sexually abused as children began to tell their stories.
Christian feminism has not been without opposition. There are alarmist anti-feminism materials produced by groups like Radical Womanhood warning readers and viewers that feminism can lead them away from God and into immorality.
Usually, feminism is presented as selfish, anti-God, anti-male, anti-family, and dangerous to society. A group that formed the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood came to propose what they called complementarianism, “which affirms that men and women are equal in the image of God, but maintain complementary differences in role and function.” But feminists retort that complementarianism “is a softer term to promote male dominance and female subordination, while hoping to avoid charges of discrimination and chauvinism, and this in itself shows the influence of cultural and religious feminism.”
Moreover, there is also still a great distance for Christian feminism travel as their work is far from complete. As one theologian reflects regarding the lack of penetration of feminist ideas in theological education,
“[A]ll is not well for feminist theology in theological education. There are still many male students who never read feminist work, much less take a feminist course. Many male faculty also do not read feminist work and do not integrate it into their courses. When they teach an overview of theology, they may create their syllabus with no feminist work at all. When this is pointed out to them by students, they may respond by creating a “lady’s day” in the syllabus, with one lecture de- voted to feminist work… Thus there is still much work to be done in feminist thought in religion. The story has still only begun to be told. Since women have been excluded from male elite culture for at least five thousand years, there is work to be done recovering their history for endless years to come” (2).
There is a significant number of Christians who identify with feminism, but there is also a large number who have left organized religion, particularly the Church, because of the perceived inability to reform a patriarchal religious institution. Many feminists have been ostracized by religious leaders because of their views on issues such as abortion, reproductive rights, sexual pleasure, and more.
Physical and Sexual Violence Against Women
Christian feminism advocates an anti-violence Christian ethic. Christian feminists are particularly concerned with male-perpetrated violence against women. Theologian Marie Fortune articulates the concerns this way,
“Violence is a common, shared experience of women of every ethnicity, class, age, sexual orientation, ability, and faith tradition. Women share either the fear or the memory of personal violence, or both. This is a fact of life that all girls learn. The commonplace reporting of individual incidents of personal violence or of hate crimes against women in public reinforces our awareness that the threat of violence is the air we breathe. It is, however, also particular to culture and ethnicity, which provide context for behaviors of violence against and control of women. Although the individual’s victimization may be particular, women’s experiences of fear, and their memories of violence, are universal” (3)
Some lament the fact that scholarship addressing violence against women within the field of religious studies, such as within the American Academy of Religion and the Society of Biblical Literature, remains sparse. There have, however, been steps made in the right direction in the Church when it addresses issues of violence against women,
“There are also some signs within some denominations and local churches of addressing domestic terror and battering as well as sexual assault and abuse, including abuse by clergy. But even here there remains a hesitation to acknowledge that these are common experiences among our members and not just unfortunate experiences of those outside the fold” (4).
Analyses of sexual violence should not only focus on the United States but also on “incidents such as those perpetrated in foreign nations by male U.S. military and civilian contractor personnel against local women.” Closer to home, analyses of historical sexual violence in the United States should consider incursions onto Native American tribal lands that were often accompanied by violence by non-Native males against Native American women. There is concern over the trafficking of women and the need to take into consideration victim-survivor experiences. According to Traci C. West, a professor of ethics and African American studies at Drew University Theological School,
“A challenge for feminist and womanist Christian ethics is to create antiviolent Christian moral understandings of right relation, that is, to create relationships that honor the dignity, wholeness, freedom, safety, and well-being of women while fostering the empowerment of racially and socioeconomically marginalized groups. We must also redress the response to the broad nexus of global cultural values at issue within incidents of sexual assault, including the multiple religious values” (5).
Women of various religious faiths must come together to oppose hate crimes, including those against immigrants and transgender persons of color. Christians must come to a knowledge of how religion, including Christianity, can spawn and maintain hatred. Feminist Christianity wants to contend against the misuse of biblical texts and teachings justifying violence and discrimination against women: “To put it more succinctly, the goal is to remove the roadblocks created by the misuse of the faith tradition and instead to draw on the resources within the faith tradition that make for the abundant life promised by Jesus in John’s Gospel” (6).
Marie Fortune offers the following several possibilities of how might grappling with the issue of violence against women (7):
- Truth-telling: the chance for the victim/survivor to tell her story,
- Acknowledgment: a response from someone who matters to the victim/survivor, who stands beside her as an advocate (for example, “What he did to you was wrong”),
- Compassion: to suffer with the victim/survivor—not to pass by,
- Protection of the vulnerable: to do everything we can to ensure that no one else is harmed by this perpetrator,
- Accountability for the offender: to call the offender to account either in the church and/or legally,
- Restitution to the survivor: material compensation to the survivor for the cost of the harm done,
- Vindication for the survivor (“to be set free”; the outcome of justice-making is to be set free and restored to one’s community).
Silencing Women and Subordination
Christian feminists bring light to how women have been silenced and subordinated in their religious tradition. Letha Dawson Scanzoni grappled with this issue in her article Woman’s Place: Silence or Service (1966). She spoke of how she witnessed churches preaching one thing but then practicing something different on the role of women. A litany of angry letters followed her article’s publication. One letter claimed that her article “is a perfect example of why a woman is admonished to be silent in the church. Most women seem to be incapable of consistent logic when their emotions are involved” (8). Scanzoni notes that over time as she published further writings (Elevate Marriage to Partnership (1968) and All We’re Meant to Be: A Biblical Approach to Women’s Liberation (1974)) efforts to crush feminist voices within evangelicalism had grown intenser.
Christian feminists noted how much damage had been done to young women’s self-esteem because of being told that God made them secondary and subordinate to men, that they may not use their gifts fully in the church, and that it is selfish to aspire to anything more. These women did not know that helpful resources on and alternative interpretations of problematic Biblical texts existed based on biblical and theological scholarship. These women do not wish to leave their faith because they love Jesus and Scripture, yet feel wounded by patriarchal teachings.
Christian feminists want to contribute to efforts seeking broader inclusion and equality in secular society and churches. Evaluating another’s moral worth based on sexual and gender identity must be resisted.
Christian feminism does not shy away from it wanting to bring to the forefront the voices of women that have been silenced and marginalized. It is through the efforts of feminists over the last several decades that “Biblical scholarship, ethics, theology, liturgy, homiletics, and church history are no longer male domains. Women’s voices are now assumed, if not always appreciated” (9). Efforts have been made to alter views about women and the role of women in the academy. Christian feminism also seeks to extend its influence outside the academy by creating a space for women’s voices in local churches: “The presence of women leaders in ministry is now a fact of life within most of Protestantism” (10).
Christian feminists notice how the human experience of race is a concrete reality. Some maintain that structural and systemic oppression based on notions of racial hierarchy and superiority is present in both history and current reality. There is, for example, the history of settler colonialism in the United States where White racism and supremacy gave birth to colonization and institutionalized slavery. Theologian Wonhee Anne Joh maintains that this is still at the core of the beliefs that build and rebuild American national identity in which White racism and sexism work simultaneously to marginalize particular peoples in routine daily practices of humiliation and degradation (11).
Anti-racism feminism also puts its effort into learning how religion has caused racism and how religions can provide resources for resisting it. This line of thought is central to postcolonial theories of religion. An anti-racism feminist ethic must also expose racial generalizations, especially when it comes to lumping racial/ethnic minority groups together as one cultural monolith. For example, it is incorrect to refer to “black women” as one single group; rather, Black women encompasses numerous groups of women who are Caribbean American, African immigrants, Afro-European, Afro-Latina, as well as the wide range of distinctive cultural backgrounds within those groups (12).
Challenging Stereotypes and Supremacy
Important to Christian feminists is challenging stereotypes. Here the notion of stereotype is understood as a dominant group constructing its identity in contrast to the marginalized group. For instance, “men of color are often depicted as lazy, whereas white men are considered hard-working and grounded in the Protestant work ethic” (13). A further stereotype is seen in how women, in contrast to men, are constructed as overly emotional and incapable of reason. It is maintained that stereotypes create essentialist metanarratives about “them” and “us.”
Some Christian feminists highlight the importance of challenging White supremacy. The United States is founded on White supremacist beliefs that excluded many and continue to haunt the lives of many people. A feminist theological engagement must attempt to destabilize White supremacy and the ways it sustains itself. Feminist theologians must examine how a heteropatriarchal Christian theological framework continues to racialize and genderize men and women of other religious traditions,
“Christian supremacy is deeply connected with the underpinnings found in white supremacy and misogyny. Christian dominance is rooted in its history of imperialism and continues its trajectory in modern times as it works insidiously to racialize and genderize other religions as unruly, deviant, dark, irrational, feminine, weak, passive, and having homosexual proclivities” (14)
There are various signs of Christian supremacy and assumptions that Christianity is the normative religion. These often go unnoticed in public space and public discourse. Public space and discourse are often imbued with Christian words, concepts, and practices. Christian feminist theologians need to engage with persons of other faith traditions to avoid such persons and their faith traditions living in the shadow of Christianity.
Feminists are recognizing the “financialization” of the globe in which the masses of the global poor are outnumbering the few global elites whose access to wealth is excessive and beyond their needs (15). This results in the devastation of vulnerable persons and creation. That a privileged few accumulate wealth and resources beyond their needs is causing suffering for the masses of people worldwide. Humanity faces an unprecedented crisis of hunger, forced migration, disease, and death, as well as defiance and violence. Feminist theologians want to theologize in ways that take the financialization of the world into account. They want to theologize in a way that respects all life as being sacred.
Women in Early Christianity
Feminist theologians are interested in the origin of the Christian movement, especially where it concerns women. They have argued that early Christianity must be revisited and retold not just as the story of leading men, but also as the story of women who are also an intrinsic part of its history.
According to professor Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza of Harvard University Divinity School, a feminist reconstruction of early Christianity needs to critically investigate androcentric biblical texts (16). It also needs to examine the androcentric imagination and theology that undergirds these texts. It is about moving women from the margins to the center of the story. To affirm women in the story of the origin of Christianity, women should not only be seen as the followers of the male apostles and leaders. Further, not all agency, power, and authority must be ascribed to men, such as Paul, for example. To put all the authority in the hands of men would only serve to “reinscribe the andro-kyriocentric mindset of malestream teaching that places men at the center of attention and sees wo/men only in relation to men, dependent on their approval and power” (17). Rather, scholars need to,
“shift our attention away from the image of the authoritative and powerful apostle Paul to the Corinthian wo/men prophets and to other early Christian wo/men leaders such as Priska, Phoebe, and Junia, who were founding figures of early Christian communities, although we have no records written by them” (18).
Much more, feminist theologians maintain, needs to be done in this area interested in recovering the forgotten voices of women within the Bible and early Christianity.
Women in Texts Beyond the New Testament
Important texts in the historical Christian tradition are not limited to the twenty-seven books of the New Testament. It is important to consider texts that are often unknown, but that also feature women and have relevance to the roles that women might have had in the evolution of Christianity. As Shelly Matthews, an Associate Professor of Religion at Furman University, explains, “it is simply impossible for me to imagine teaching my undergraduate introductions to the New Testament, or any adult education seminar on early Christian diversity, without considering the Gospel of Mary and the Acts of Thecla” (19). Is through engaging such texts that we have access to voices that have long been silenced,
“We now have access to Mary Magdalene as she is depicted in the Gospel of Mary, as a visionary teaching the disciples the mysteries that lead to salvation, as the one who has the fortitude to comfort the disciples in their distress, as the one who weeps in the face of Peter and Andrew’s scorn, as the one who serves as the inspiration for the defensive question raised by Levi on Mary’s behalf, “If the Savior made her worthy, who are you indeed to reject her?” (20)
It is noted how these texts are often still wrapped in a kyriocentric frame, but yet provide readers with a new angle of vision of what women, in this case Mary Magdalene, must have meant to believers in the Jesus movement. There is also the Acts of Thecla, a text which speaks against societal norms of the patriarchal household.
Some Christian feminists take issue with the rigidness of the gender binary. They argue that the construction of genders along a binary division must be critiqued and problematized. Feminist scholars today argue for anti-essentialist views: a person is not “born a female but becomes one.” As one feminist theologian writes, “I extend this argument further to say that a person is not “born a male but becomes one” and even further to say that a person “is not born as a ‘woman of color’ but becomes one” (21).
It is important to note that gender is also raced in that people of various racial and ethnic groups experience gender differently. For example, White masculinity has been seen to constitute rationality, progress, and reason while historically colonized men were depicted as effeminate, child-like, emotional, and incapable of reason. Some were depicted as hypermasculinized and therefore uncontrollable, incapable of reason, uncivilized, sexually promiscuous, and so on. According to Anne Joh,
“[A] white Euro-American male’s understanding of masculinity is quite different from an Asian male’s experience. Any kind of feminist theological vision must take seriously the ways in which becoming gendered infiltrates, in a problematic way, how we understand what it means to be complex creatures, and equally, the ways we understand all of creation” (22).
Some feminist theologians maintain that feminist work must seek to end social and religious evaluations of moral worth based on sexual and gender identity, together with the severe consequences for safety, dignity, and freedoms that result from such judgments for devalued groups.
Christian feminists how emphasized how the language we commonly use to refer to God is awash in maleness. We commonly encounter images and language in churches perpetuating an understanding that God is male. Christian feminists have thus pursued an inclusive or gender-neutral language about both humans and the divine. But this is certainly no easy task. The feminist liturgical scholar Deborah Sokolove reflects that,
“The task of degendering the word God is massive. Pronouns, designations, doctrinal speech, metaphors, and personifications of the deity must speak more truthfully of a God who according to Christian tradition is beyond gender. We need to whitewash murals that depict God as a male creature. Children’s books must be devoid of demeaning portraiture of God. Light streaming from behind a cloud is no profound picture of God, but it is surely more Christian than a drawing of Jupiter” (23).
The major problem feminists experience with the habit of gendering God as male is that it is deeply ingrained in our consciousness. Sokolove reflects concerning how her class of students, who were asked to compose prayers, responsive readings, and other elements of a worship service, could not think of God in any gender-neutral terms,
“When I asked them if they would be willing to address God as anything other than Father or Lord, most of them looked bewildered or shocked, assuming that the only alternative would have to be Mother or Goddess, which were obviously unacceptable to them. It was clear that none of them had ever really thought about even the most obvious gender-neutral possibilities, such as Rock of our Salvation, or even Holy One. The maleness of God was so deeply ingrained in these young students that to suggest that God is bigger than or beyond gender was, quite literally, unthinkable. The good news is that by the end of the term all of them had expanded their vocabulary of the divine into a wide range of images and metaphors” (24).
Some feminist theologians have issued challenges to artists and writers of hymns and prayers to find new ways of depicting God that allow us to see both male and female as created in God’s own image. This is also, of course, no easy task.
Sexual Ethics (Youth Perspective)
Some Christian feminists have placed their focus on the youth, especially on providing them with “a sexual ethic that is sufficiently complex and realistically simple” (25). There is a problem that children are lacking in the area of sexual education and education about relationships,
“Many of the children with whom I worked—poor and wealthy; white, Latina, black, and Asian American; from urban neighborhoods and the suburbs—seemed to face a common problem: silence from adults about sexuality and relationships… It is children and youth who are suffering from our silence—from sexual abuse and violence, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, poor body image, and growing rates of HIV; those who suffer reproductive and sexual health disparities are most often poor girls of color in the United States and globally” (26).
It is urgent that a new feminist Christian sexual ethics takes into consideration the moral agency and developing sexuality of children and youth seriously. This would give them greater ownership of their bodies and sexuality, as well as demand greater accountability from adults. The problem is, argues Christian ethicist Kate M. Ott, is that the discipline of ethics does not (often) recognize children and youth as subjects, which contributes to a lack of well-articulated arguments for the moral agency of children. Further, sexual ethics continues to be overly concerned with sexual acts rather than sexual development, especially when it is implemented in church-based sexuality education programs. Only a small number of Christian ethicists are currently doing academic writing on the moral agency of children.
Another problem is that we seldom spend time speaking about the positive formation of our sexuality. Sexual ethics tend to be more concerned with preventing sexual abuse or seeking to restrict early sexual behaviors between youth. We need to break this silence and more openly talk about sexuality,
“I suggest a developmental sexual ethic that stresses the dynamic and qualitative character of relationships; considers incremental sexual behaviors as valuable (as children become teens) and recognizes them as stages, not absolute “next steps” to more intimate sexual behaviors; and requires ongoing sharing of information, resources, and opportunity” (27).
The sexual education of children and youth entails a moral obligation for parents too,
“Children need ongoing information sharing and building of communication skills in early childhood related to body parts, prevention of sexual abuse, and physical sexual development; and later in childhood, related to protection from sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy prevention, and sexual pleasure. Such an ethic would help children and youth explore their sexuality in a fluid manner, allow them to take responsibility for their own behaviors, and provide them with experience to recognize and feel confident about naming when their sexuality was violated” (28).
The Aesthetics Perspective
Aesthetics here refers to art, which feels empowering for those who produce it (29). Aesthetics can be anything ranging from paintings, songs, music, storytelling, poems, and writings to dramas, performances, dancing, and sculpting. It is about exciting the imagination and delighting the senses often in ways that are more profoundly moving than the typical sermon. As Jeanette Stokes, an ordained Presbyterian minister, reflects, “I came to understand there were more ways for groups of people to enter God’s presence than with hymns, prayers, and sermons.”
There are many examples of how aesthetics might reinvigorate faith. A Catholic mystic Meinrad Craighead, in her The Mother’s Songs: Images of God the Mother (1986), once painted visions that came to her in prayer and meditation that some feminists feel have expanded their imaginations. The theologian Rosemary Radford Ruether’s Woman-Church: Theology and Practice helped feminists in the Church create their own rituals to satisfy their spiritual needs and desires. The Re-Imagining Conference held in Minneapolis in 1993 that was attended by hundreds of feminist Christians contained many examples of new liturgical forms and feminist artistic expressions.
Christian feminists and feminist theologians have worked to create liturgical experiences that are uplifting and inspiring. It is an attempt to transform Christianity into something vigorous and viable for women’s lives. What is feminist liturgy? Janet Walton explains,
“Feminist liturgy… provides a space where everything matters: our dashed hopes, sadness, determination, joys, and small successes. We count on our liturgies to meet our day-to-day, year-after-year human concerns and public responsibilities with long-term hope bolstered by beliefs in one another and in a living God. On any one day we do not know what will happen ahead of time, that is, what the structure of the liturgy will be or what texts, textures, objects, sounds, or movements will engage our focus” (30).
It is about embodiment and engagement in liturgical action. It is about doing (listening, looking, moving, and responding, etc.). Consider the following description of one feminist ritual,
“An ice sculpture was a focus for a liturgy on rage. With ice picks, we chipped away at it until it cracked and melted. The ice was hard to break. It was cold on our hands. It gave way only from the constant chipping of each person. We reflected: We will not be frozen by inaction. We will work together to discover how to express our rage and use it for every struggle. We poured the melted water over primroses, not to resolve or dissolve our rage but rather to find ways to nourish ourselves in the midst of it with beauty found in nature and in ourselves. Feminist Christianity requires a lifetime of resistance, persistence, and imagination” (31)
Another feminist artist, Elizabeth Schell, made a sculpture inspired by the biblical text from the book of Judges speaking of an unnamed woman concubine who was gang-raped. Schell made a twelve-foot soft sculpture of a women’s body and on its surface were names of people who were broken, sacrificed, and violated. There were also images of the Earth symbolizing its susceptibility to abuse as well. The sculpture was then torn into a dozen pieces and places on the floor which symbolized to onlookers the brokenness of the victim’s body. It brought to the surface questions about the silence of victims of abuse and the need for women to support each other. The women then tied the pieces of the sculpture together “as an act of commitment, personal and collective, to remember and to speak out. It was a liturgy of justice and freedom” (32).
Women’s institutional headship in the Church has been one of controversy (33). Critics have cited biblical verses opposing the role of women in matters of leadership, such as the apostle Paul suggesting that “women were to be silent in the churches” and not “rule” (1 Cor. 14:34).
But attitudes have been changing. From the mid-1950s to the 1980s numerous denominations granted equal status and ordination to women. Soon large numbers of women were attending theological schools. Responses to these changes have varied. Some believed that the increase of women clergy over the past few decades will force churches to become more egalitarian whereas others predict a conservative backlash. Some see the role of women leaders and clergy in the Church as little more than tokenism. Others are significantly more positive in that they think clergywomen will reinvent the meaning of ordination for the whole church.
- Dawson Scanzoni, Letha. 2010. “Why We Need Evangelical Feminists.” In New Feminist Christianity: Many Voices, Many Views, edited by Diann Neu and Mary E. Hunt. Nashville: SkyLight Paths Publishing. p. 110
- Radford Ruether, Rosemary. 2010. “Feminist Theology in Education.” Ibid. p. 45
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. “Seeking Justice and Healing.” Ibid. p. 199
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. Ibid. p. 199.
- West, Traci. 2010. “What Does Antiracist Feminist Christian Social Ethics Look Like?” Ibid. p. 175.
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. Ibid. p. 200.
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. Ibid. p. 207-208.
- Dawson Scanzoni, Letha. 2010. Ibid. p. 107.
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. Ibid. p. 198.
- Fortune, Marie. 2010. Ibid. p. 199.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. “Race, Class, Gender, Sexuality: Integrating the Diverse Politics of Identity into Our Theology.” Ibid. p. 100.
- West, Traci. 2010. Ibid. p. 171.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. Ibid. p. 92.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. Ibid. p. 93.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. Ibid. p. 95-96.
- Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 2010. “Critical Feminist Biblical Studies: Remembering the Struggles, Envisioning the Future.” Ibid. p. 135.
- Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 2010. Ibid. p. 135.
- Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 2010. Ibid. p. 135.
- Matthews, Shelly. 2010. “The Future of Feminist Scripture Studies.” Ibid. p. 161.
- Matthews, Shelly. 2010. Ibid. p. 162.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. Ibid. p. 90.
- Anne Joh, Wonhee. 2010. Ibid. p. 91.
- Sokolove, Deborah. 2010. “More Than Words.” Ibid. p. 256.
- Sokolove, Deborah. 2010. Ibid. p. 258.
- Ott, Kate. 2010. “Searching for an Ethic: Sexuality, Children, and Moral Agency.” p. 225, 232.
- Ott, Kate. 2010. Ibid. p. 223.
- Ott, Kate. 2010. Ibid. p. 230.
- Ott, Kate. 2010. Ibid. p. 231.
- Stokes, Jeanette. 2010. “The Feminist Face of God: Art and Liturgy.” Ibid. p. 238.
- Walton, Janet. 2010. “The Road Is Made by Walking.” Ibid. p. 284.
- Walton, Janet. 2010. Ibid. p. 287.
- Walton, Janet. 2010. Ibid. p. 289.
- Brown Zikmund, Barbara. 2010. “Women in Ministry in a Postfeminist Era.” Ibid. p. 326.
[…] religion’s inherent patriarchy, although many other women academics would disagree as there is a strong feminist movement within Christianity today. Sexism, no matter what anyone would do, will always be part of its essence. She thus […]