In Hindu cosmology the universe is cyclically created and destroyed in the timespan of 8.64 billion years and this deeply rooted in Hindu literature including the Vedas and Puranas. It is believed time is divided into four epochs or Yuga, of which we occupy the final. Cosmologist Carl Sagan explains that in the Hinduism the “Cosmos itself undergoes an immense, indeed an infinite, number of deaths and rebirths. It is the only dharma in which time scales correspond to those of modern scientific cosmology. Its cycles run from our ordinary day and night to a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion years long, longer than the age of the Earth or the Sun and about half the time since the Big Bang” (1)
The Hindu sacred texts thus indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything, but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes (2/3). In other words Hindu cosmology teaches that the universe cycles between creation and destruction, through infinite time, and therefore the closest cosmological model conforming to Hindu scriptures is the eternally oscillating model of the universe.
However, powerful lines of evidence such as the red-shift of galaxies, microwave background, expansion of galaxies from a central point, second law of thermodynamics, looking back in time via telescope and so forth suggests that the universe did have a beginning at a point in time. This suggest that the Hindu understanding of the nature of the universe is incompatible, hence problematic with modern cosmology.
1. Sagan, C. 1985. Cosmos. p. 258.
2. Mittal, S. & Thursby, G. Hindu World.
3. Jones, A. 2009. String Theory For Dummies. p. 262.